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Collaboratively Answering Australia’s Geoscience Questions.

CEO’s Welcome

Gravity visualisation on earth’s surface rendered in GPlates desktop software. Image: Dietmar Muller, EarthByte Group at the School of Geosciences, The University of Sydney.

Dear AuScope community,

It has been a busy but exciting couple of months since our last update in May 2017. We have started a new financial year and with it a new funding cycle. We are currently operating with two years of NCRIS funding from the Commonwealth which is allowing us to take some time to assess our current programs and the AuScope model in general, as well as do some strategic planning for the coming five and ten-year periods and finally, to the fill some of the gaps in our current eResearch architecture.

The delivery of the Chief Scientist’s National Research Infrastructure Roadmap has led to the initiation of an implementation planning activity within the Departments of Education and Industry involving gathering data about current infrastructure capacity and possible future funding levels – a process that AuScope has been actively contributing to. Thank you again to those that helped us put together our submissions to this activity.

We are also excited to welcome a new member to the AuScope team. Jo Condon has started as the new Marketing and Communications Manager based in the Melbourne office. I would like to welcome Jo and I am sure that many of you will interact with her in some way over the coming months. If you have any material for our communications, or anything that you would like to promote, please do not hesitate to get in touch with her at

I would also like to congratulate AuScope SAM (Simulation, Analysis, Modelling) Program Director, Louis Moresi, who has been awarded American Geophysical Union Fellowship for exceptional contribution to Earth and Space Science.  A very well-deserved honour.

Tim Rawling


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To The Future



Australia’s decadal plan for Earth Sciences is currently under development. Illustration:  The Australian Academy Of Science.

How do we best manage Australia’s natural resources like minerals, energy, water and soils? Together with the Australian Academy of Science, AuScope prepares the Decadal Plan For Earth Sciences plan, which is designed to ensure that research positively impacts the nation’s environmental state and prosperity.

This project follows on from the last decadal plan for Earth Sciences, Geoscience—Unearthing our future, which was released in 2003. It brought about a period of significant scientific advance in our sector, built on well-funded research programs, and underpinned by significant investment in research infrastructure through the NCRIS and EIF schemes.

To continue momentum, and ensure alignment between our strategic plan and the national decadal plan, Auscope has actively contributed to its development. A draft version is available for your review, please do not hesitate to contact Tim Rawling by email at

Keep informed about the progress of the decadal plan at The Australian Academy Of Science

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Petrophysical Data Online

Map showing Victoria’s geological provinces and sampling points (blue dots) where recent petrophysical data has been collected. Data will be used to develop a picture of structural, mineralogical and thermal anomalies across the state, and is now available on the AuScope Portal.

The future of Australia’s mineral exploration success lies in successfully exploring under the 80% of the continent that is covered by regolith, or sediments. AuScope’s Subsurface Observation (formerly AGOS) team and partners have just added a new data piece to the puzzle.

With the help of Dr Robert Woodcock and his team at CSIRO, AuScope’s Subsurface Observation team, led by Dr. David Belton at the University of Melbourne, have been able to optimise recently-updated software for delivering charted petrophysical data onto the AuScope Portal, in order to provide ready access to this data for members of the geoscience community.

The team have completed uploading borehole petrophysics results for 4500 metres of diamond core representing 50 sites, the bulk of which sample subsurface geology in Victoria. These boreholes aimed to investigate structural, mineralogical and thermal anomalies.

A total of 27 holes delivered extensive meterage (average 160 metres per hole) in basement lithologies and provide a comprehensive picture of the subsurface physical properties including density, p-wave velocity, resistivity, magnetic susceptibility as well as natural gamma output.  A further 22 sites were sampled for strategically important lithologies of interest in geothermal studies. Many of these sites also underwent comprehensive thermal conductivity analyses.


Example of graphed petrophysical data that is now available on the AuScope Portal. Viewing data in this way allows geologists to determine areas of interest downhole, based on anomalies between datasets. For example, a spike in magnetic susceptibility, ‘Mag. sus.’ and ‘Resistivity’ may indicate the presence of metallic mineralogy, which may spark further investigation to determine whether it is possibly ore-bearing.

This component milestone culminates a number of different projects with CSIRO, Geoscience Australia and the Geological Survey of Victoria, whose various aims include:

  • Developing new drilling techniques, such as sonic drilling
  • Expanding the amount and type of datasets, from lithogeochemical to extended petrophysical data, for improved mineral exploration vectoring
  • Verifying surface and downhole geophysical data collection technologies, which vastly improves modelling of geophysical data
  • Geothermal exploration

To view graphical petrophysical data, please visit the AuScope Portal. To access raw petrophysical and seismic data, please get in touch with project leader Dr. David Belton at


Discover AuScope’s Earth Composition and Evolution

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Cratons, And Their Researchers, Collide


Professor Yuntao Tian from Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, former Ph.D. student at the University of Melbourne, and now a collaborator in thermochronology research. Working on the low-temperature thermochronology and tectonic evolution of eastern sector of the Tibetan Plateau.

As the Indo-Australian Plate converges with the Tibetan Plateau, recently, so too do researchers from respective locations, outcomes of which are proving to be sizeable. Professor Andy Gleadow, from AuScope’s Earth Composition and Evolution component, explains.

Our Thermochronology Research Group at the University of Melbourne has a wide variety of international collaborations, with particularly strong and ongoing relationships with Chinese researchers. All studies rely on AuScope-supported age dating facilities for temperature-sensitive age dating techniques, or ‘thermochronology’.

One recent study led by long-term collaborator, Yuntao Tian, has explored the synchronous fluvial response to surface uplift in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. That is, this is the relative timing between plateau uplift and river-induced erosion incising its flanks.

Tian et al used AuScope’s fission track and uranium-thorium-helium dating equipment to reconstruct the thermal history of rocks in two vertical profiles through locations where two rivers have eroded into the plateau. Findings indicate that the timing of plateau uplift and river erosion spanned around 2 million years, around 10 to 12 million years ago (Cenzoic period), which in geological timescales, is relatively synchronous.

This work has challenged popular geodynamic models for explaining the vertical and lateral expansion of the plateau. It provided important long-term evidence for re-assessing the seismic risk of major faults in the hinterland of the Longmen Shan (thought to be inactive by some geologists), as well as the frontal zone that was ruptured by a Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake in 2008.

An extension of the impact of this research is that scientists can now better predict how the vast network of valleys emanating from the world’s largest plateau (2.5 million square kilometres) might respond to glacial melting as climate change takes hold in the near future.

Papers have been published in the journals Geophysical Research Letters and Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems were selected as the cover page of the hosting issue and featured as an AGU (American Geophysical Union) Research Journal Highlight.

Researchers at the Fission Track Thermochronology Laboratory at the University of Melbourne, from left to right:  Prof Andy Gleadow, Mr. Jianzhang Pang,  Mr. Peng Gao, Prof Barry Kohn,  Dr. Liangbiao Lin, Dr. Zhanghuang Ye. Image: Prof Andy Gleadow.

Aside from the great work undertaken by Professor Yuntao Tian, other important collaborations that are underway with the Melbourne group include:

  • Dr. Lingbiao Lin, Institute of Sedimentary Geology, Chengdu University of Technology. Working on sandstone diagenesis and the formation some tight sandstone gas reservoirs (visitor with Prof Mike Sandiford)
  • Dr. Zhiyong Zhang, Associate Professor from Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Current research interests include Meso-Cenozoic tectonic evolution of Tarim block, Precambrian magmatic events in western China, Thermochronological study of Zagros Orogen and Tectonic history of Neo-Tethys.
  • Mr. Jianzhang Pang, Visiting Ph.D. student, Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration, studying the uplift of mountain ranges and evolution of sedimentary basins in the northeast Tibetan Plateau by apatite fission-track and U-Th/He thermochronology.
  • Dr. Zhanghuang (Chuck) Ye, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, China. Focusses on uplift and denudation of ancient orogenic belts and the preservation of ore deposits using low-temperature thermochronology.
  • Mr. Peng Gao, Visiting Ph.D. student from Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Working on the thermal history of the Ordos Basin, western North China Craton, with low-temperature thermochronology (both AFT and (U-Th)/He).Dr. Xiaoyin Tang, Visiting Scholar from Xi’an Jiaotong University. Working on low-temperature
  • Dr. Xiaoyin Tang, Visiting Scholar from Xi’an Jiaotong University. Working on low-temperature thermochronology of the Pearl River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea
  • Dr. Guangwei Li, Research Fellow in the School of Earth Sciences with Professor Mike Sandiford. Working on the evolution of the southern Tibetan Plateau.
  • Mr. Yue (Frank) Li, Ph.D. student in earth sciences at the University of Melbourne with Profs. David Phillips and Barry Kohn. Working on the geo-thermochronology of Paleozoic granites in Victoria: assessing the tectonic evolution of the Lachlan Fold Belt
  • Mr. Qingyang Li, Ph.D. student in earth sciences at the University of Melbourne, with Profs Andy Gleadow and Barry Kohn. Working on the development of 3D methods for the study of fission tracks length distributions and their use in thermal history reconstruction.
  • Dr. Song Lu, Research Fellow in Earth Sciences at the University of Melbourne (former Ph.D. student at Uni Melbourne) – Thermotectonic Evolution of the SW Yilgarn Craton and other Ar/Ar and low-temperature thermochronology projects.


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Hype Over Hyperspectral

Representatives from the Australian State and Territory Geological Surveys and CSIRO at AuScope’s Australian National Virtual Core Library (NVCL) community workshop in Sydney earlier in 2017. Image: Carsten Laukamp.

Remember when CSIRO developed high-speed wifi technology to solve time challenges in digital communication? Equipped with AuScope’s HyLogger hyperspectral equipment, Australian researchers are set to prove a comparable feat, in both nature and size, for improved Australian mineral exploration practices.

In July 2017, AuScope’s Australian National Virtual Core Library (NVCL) component leader, Dr. Carsten Laukamp communicated some impressive facts on HyLogger (quantitative mineral scanning) technology during a presentation at Brisbane’s Drilling for Geology II conference.

These include the semi-automatic collection of semi-quantitative mineralogical readings from drill core, with the processing capacity of 700m per day, and a staggering 55% reduced analysis cost when compared with whole rock geochemistry. Additionally, over 10,000km of historical drill core sourced nationally is available for interrogation to date, and a wealth of literature on locating mineral systems using HyLogger technology – a total of 12 research papers have been produced in the last few years, with more on the way.

Map of Australia showing the location of hyperspectral studies that have been undertaken in the last few years. Small black dots mark the locations of HyLogged drill cores as part of the NVCL, with data available through AuScope’s Discovery Portal. Illustration: Carsten Laukamp.

For mineral researchers and explorers, this technology is a game-changer. Each year, the Australian exploration industry spends around $600 million on strategic drill programs to locate and define economic ore bodies and mineral systems (CSIRO, 2017). Subsequently, geologists assess kilometres of drill core, often spending weeks, months and possibly entire careers on the task. Though rarely is this qualitative data used throughout a mine’s life, and thus little predictive geological value is extracted from this cost-intensive process.

Using HyLogger technology, geologists can now collect mineralogical data quickly. The HyLogger data collected at the NVCL nodes, located at six of the Australian State and Territory Geological Surveys, are made available to the research and industry community via the AuScope Portal. This data is both numeric (mineralogical) and visual (core imagery).

It is important to note that the process of core logging will never be redundant, as physically examining rocks helps to build geological understanding and knowledge of correct analysis techniques to apply subsequently. Rather, the drill core mineralogical information derived from hyperspectral drill core scanning allows the geologists to identify large-scale compositional trends and better target sampling for subsequent geochemical, mineralogical and petrophysical analyses.

As time goes on, more and more historical and real-time data join the AuScope Portal database, stimulating exploration and facilitating more robust vectoring techniques that lead toward locating mineral deposits. As was the path to NVCL’s HyLogger technology achievement, collaborative technology development and data use between research and industry communities will be imperative in further meeting Australia’s mineral exploration challenges. For now, we can celebrate a great project milestone and Australia’s position as world-leading in combined acquisition and interpretation of drill core hyperspectral data.

AuScope’s NVCL component nodes operate the CSIRO-developed HyLogging systems (combining visible and infrared reflectance spectroscopy, robotics, materials-handling and automated mineralogical interpretation) at the drill core libraries of the respective State and Territory Geological Surveys.

If you are interested in visiting a facility, attending a workshop or exploring research opportunities, please get in touch with Carsten Laukamp at or geological survey NVCL representatives:

Northern Territory –
Queensland –
South Australia –
Tasmania –
Western Australia – 


Learn more about AuScope’s National Virtual Core Library

Access NVCL mineralogical and core image data via the AuScope Portal

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Waking A Quiescent Continent

SciScouts ‘footquake’ mid-action. Image: Australian Seismometers in Schools.

In 2006, the American researcher, Garrett Euler made a chance observation in seismic noise data in Cameroon: noise spiked at key moments during the African Cup of Nations soccer games. Not only did this inspire seismologists around the world to view noisy data differently, but the notion of an anthropogenic ‘footquake’ caught on. Recently, during a Raiders vs Panthers NRL game in Canberra, AuScope’s Earth Imaging team set out to create a world record in the category.

The response to the Viking clap at Sunday’s Raiders game, as recorded by AuScope’s Australian Seismometers in Schools team.

Aside from ‘footquake’ excitement in the last quarter, crustal activity across Australia, recorded by the AGOS seismic networks, has been relatively quiescent. We are still receiving data from the significant Petermann Ranges (NT) M6.4 earthquake in mid-2016, and data is currently being prepared for release, in print and presentations, by researchers from a number of research groups and government agencies. The most recent subsequent episode has been an M3.4 event located west of Yulara (NT) on the 1st of September, this year.  Seismic activity in Victoria is also quiet at the moment, with the most significant event being an M3.5 earthquake recorded in the central Gippsland region in February.


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New To AuScope Communications

AuScope Communications

As the new editor of the quarterly newsletter, I will take this opportunity to introduce myself. My name is Jo Condon, I am a geologist, designer, and science communicator, and have recently been appointed as AuScope’s marketing and communications manager, following on from Helen Keogh.

My background includes ten years in the Australian minerals industry as a geologist and researcher (2008 – 2015), and two years in the Melbourne design industry as a graphic designer and marketing manager (2015 – current). I am thrilled to now be working at the intersection of my two passions – science and the arts – with the task of articulating AuScope’s research stories with as much rigor and passion as its researchers.

Whether you are a member of the research, government, media or general public, please get in touch with any suggestions for AuScope communications at, I would love to hear from you.


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AuScope submission to review into research infrastructure capabilities in Australia

Letter for AuScope submission to the National Research Infrastructure Roadmap Capability Issues Paper

Members of the National Research Infrastructure Review Committee,

Australia is a vast and complex continent.  It contains some of the world’s oldest rocks, and some of the youngest.  It has regions that have been undisturbed for billions of years while at the same time the margins of our plate are actively deformed as they are subducted beneath our neighbours.

The Earth holds the clues that allow us to understand how our planet works, how the solar system was born, how life evolved, and how our dynamic planet continues to change.  The Australian crust hosts some of the richest mineral and energy systems on the planet (currently contributing approximately 10% of Australian GDP and >50% of exports) and has been the foundation on which our economy was built. Our economy will continue to grow and provide jobs for hundreds of thousands of Australians over the next decade based on the resources the Australian crust provides us.

In order to ensure the stability and growth of industry two critical challenges need to be addressed by the geoscience community. Firstly, we need a more effective method of exploring for minerals under areas of sedimentary cover and, secondly,  we need to sustainably manage competing demands for energy and water resources in Australia’s sedimentary basins.

Exploration under cover

From an exploration perspective Australia is, quite incorrectly, considered a mature region.  The “easy” mineral deposit discoveries that have some expression in the rocks exposed at the surface, have mostly been identified.  However, the Australian crust has only given up the smallest of its secret mineral potential.  The vast majority of our mineralised provinces remain largely unexplored due to the fact that they are buried beneath younger sediments, which obscures them from discovery with our current exploration capability.

Our ability to understand the nature of these cover sequences, developed as layers over geological time,  and what they inform us about the crystalline rock beneath, is one of the critical scientific challenges of the coming decade. Key to the sustainability of the minerals industry as an underpinning economic pillar in Australia will be the development of new sensor technologies, the acquisition of national high-resolution geophysical and geochemical datasets, and the development of eResearch tools that will allow us to intelligently analyse and process the deluge of observational data that is beginning to be collected.

The UNCOVER initiative is an industry led research program designed to address these issues.  This initiative brings together researchers from industry, government and academia. It recognises the value of existing AuScope and Geoscience Australia programs like large-scale geophysical instrument deployments, national drilling and sampling programs and, the acquisition of 3D geochemical and geochronological profiles for the entire country.  These new national datasets and the latest transformational data analysis tools, that include machine-learning and Bayesian approaches to big data integration, will revolutionise the way mineral exploration is undertaken in Australia over the next 25 years.

Sustainable basin management

The emergence of new ways to extract energy resources from our sedimentary basins (shale gas, coal seam gas, geothermal) coupled with the development of alternate uses for subsurface reservoirs (compressed air storage, waste storage, geosequestration) and an ever increasing demand for fresh water puts more, and increasing, pressure on our sedimentary basins than ever before.  Resource sterilisation, groundwater contamination, surface subsidence, salinity and human induced seismicity are just some of the risks Australia faces if poor or ill-informed management policies relating to these basin bound resources are implemented.

The problematic complexity surrounding resource management is compounded by the historic practice of collecting data to support exploration for energy resources in basin environments. This practice traditionally focused only on the data relevant to a specific commodity or part of the basin that may contain it.  However, a recent paradigm shift has seen resource managers starting to consider the pore-space of the crust as the resource of value, rather than whatever fluid it may contain. This has fundamentally changed the way that we think about basins as a source of sustainable resources.  In order to make this new paradigm shift a reality, a new generation of geoscience data is needed. Data, allowing earth scientists to constrain the geometry of entire basins and the aquifer systems within them, along with more complete geochemical datasets and deployments of surface based monitoring systems that allow the tracking of earthquake activity, groundwater flow, surface movements and build up of stress, is critical for the future health of these complex geological formations.

The capture of this new data will allow the behavior of entire basins, in response to natural and human induced change, to be constrained and accurately predicted.

The investment opportunity

Australia’s Earth and geospatial science research has reached a tipping point. The size and remote nature of our landmass, combined with our ability to measure and sample, only the shallowest portions of the crust, has made Australian researchers expert at the efficient use of sparse datasets.

However, the reduction in cost to produce the next generation of Earth monitoring and imaging sensors combined with increased portability and sensitivity, will, facilitate a revolution in the way we can image and monitor the Earth’s crust and create a new understanding of the nature of what lies beneath our feet.  The deployment of grids of multi-sensors in boreholes or surface based locations will facilitate the development of datasets that will be enable research into:

  • the current state of the Earth (stress, groundwater movement, human impacts, natural hazards),
  • the processes leading to its formation (mantle process, crustal architecture, plate tectonics), and,
  • more efficient discovery and use of earth-bound resources (UNCOVER, mineral and energy systems).

AuScope’s Australian Earth Observing System is a distributed sensor system, a 10 Million Square Kilometre Array, that will allow us to make Australia the most intensively monitored, deeply imaged, best understood and most efficiently utilised continent on Earth.

It is fortunate that the infrastructure requirements associated with large scale distributed sensor deployments to facilitate significant advances in both exploration under cover and, the sustainable management of our basins are remarkably similar.  Both need access to:

  • large fleets of a variety of state of the art, field deployable geophysical instruments,
  • access to existing or new boreholes for in-situ sampling and subsurface sensor deployment,
  • the development of new workflows and observation techniques, including the use of miniaturised sensors and drones, to revolutionise the speed and fidelity of geophysical imaging programs,
  • ongoing time-series observational monitoring to build up models of the architecture and composition of the deep Earth, baseline data for monitoring changes to the crust and assessment of potential for associated geo-risks,
  • robust data infrastructure for transfer, discovery and storage of large datasets, telemetered time-series data and geospatial data,
  • Simulation and modelling codes that can utilise this data to develop national Earth models (analogous to the ACCESS models in the climate science community), and,
  • access to eResearch tools and High Performance Computing (HPC) and related storage to allow these very large and complex datasets to be interrogated and modelled.

AuScope and the Australian Earth Observing System

The AuScope Infrastructure Program has been a collaboration between Australian and State research institutions in universities and government, with funding support from the Australian Government’s National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS). A ‘world class research infrastructure to characterise the structure and evolution of the Australian continent in a global context from surface to core in space and time’ has been our vision.

Since its inception in 2006 AuScope has served the Australian Earth and Geospatial communities through the development of the AuScope Earth Model.  This is an integrated observing system that involves geophysical, petrophysical and geospatial facilities serviced by a robust Grid based eResearch infrastructure, virtual laboratories and simulation and modelling tools.  It is upon this foundation that the Australian Earth Observing System will be built.

A recently completed Impact Assessment Study, undertaken by Lateral Economics, assessed the economic impact of the development of the existing AuScope infrastructure for Australia.  This study identified a variety of direct and indirect user groups of AuScope-related outputs incorporating:

  • individual researchers in universities or structured research collaborations (e.g. cooperative research centres, specialist research groups or facilities, industry partnerships) with clear examples across the breadth of AuScope’s ten partner universities and beyond,
  • State and Territory geological surveys (geoscience agencies) and Geoscience Australia with relative activity and usage skewed towards those jurisdictions with greater size and scope of geological survey work, notably Western Australia and Queensland, and,
  • individuals or firms that utilise data or analysis and interpretation produced by the above groups (e.g. mineral or energy exploration firms, natural resource managers).

The research and other benefits resulting from AuScope-related physical and data infrastructure is equally diverse. Key areas of impact influenced by AuScope, each of which are reasonably distinct, include:

  • fundamental Earth science,
  • resource exploration,
  • spatially sensitive industries, and,
  • natural and built environment.

Based on an initial investment of $41.4 million, the indicative economic assessment suggests a net benefit to Australia from AuScope between $2.3 billion to $6.2 billion – with our best estimate of $3.7 billion (net present value in 2015-16 terms, over the period to 2040-41).

A net benefit of $3.7 billion is equivalent to $15 of benefit for every $1 in economic cost – a substantial return on investment. While substantial, the scale of these estimates is consistent with other economic assessments of similar initiatives, in Australia and the United States.

Planning for the AEOS

In 2011 AuScope undertook a community wide engagement exercise to develop a future plan should new capital investment become available.  This resulted in the development of the AEOS concept and a series of projects were developed and costed at a variety of activity levels.

These are presented in the AuScope Earth Observatory Roadmap document – A second updated roadmap was produced in 2015 which further refined the Australian Earth Observatory concept and incorporated the requirements of the fledgling UNCOVER and Sustainable Basin Management initiatives –

The full quantum of funding required to support the infrastructure requirements of AuScope’s research initiatives will need to be assessed in the future particularly in light of the recent progress made by partner organisations in the detailed planning of their future research programs.  However, based on previous costings, and calculated at a minimum and full level of support, the quantum is likely to be between $10 to $20 million per year for a 10 year program.

We hope that this information, and the specific responses to the questions related to the issues paper that follow, help with the panel’s review of research infrastructure requirements in Australia.  Also attached is the Executive Summary from Lateral Economics’ Impact Assessment (mentioned briefly above), a brief document outlining key science questions that will drive the AEOS and brief description of some of the programs that will support that science.

If you have any questions regarding this submission, please contact me for clarification. I would end this submission with a word of appreciation, on behalf of Australia’s Earth and Geospatial research community to the Australian Government and the Office of the Chief Scientist, for undertaking what we regard as a critical step to secure a brighter more sustainable future for our continent and its people.


Dr Tim Rawling
CEO AuScope Limited

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Submissions sought for review into research infrastructure capabilities in Australia

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Winners announced – AuScope Excellence Awards

AuScope will be holding a symposium and well as an awards dinner at the AESC in Adelaide in June 2016 to celebrate 10 years of AuScope….

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